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15 May 2022

Sollipulli Volcano Glacier Recession Snow Cover Deficit

Landsat images of Sollipulli from 1986 and 2022. Point A-D are locations where the glacier spilled out of the caldera in 1986, but no longer does so in 2022. Nevados de Sollipulli is a volcano, is in the central Andes of Chile near the border with Argentina in Parque Nacional Villarica, Chile. The 4 km wide summit caldera at ~2100 m is filled by a glacier. The volcano is dormant …


1 April 2022

Central Andean Glaciers Laid Bare for Last Half of Summer 2022

Volcan Overo in Sentinel image continues to fragment with no retained snowcover this summer, and bedrock expansion at Point A. For an alpine glacier to survive it must remain mostly snowcovered throughout the year, even at the end of the summer. This is one reason for the majesty of glaciated mountains, they shine brightly even in summer.  This year in the Central Andes of Argentina and Chile I have chronicled …


4 March 2022

Volcan San Jose, Central Andes Glacier Decline and Snowcover Loss in 2022.

Volcan San Jose, Chile/Argentina Glacier change in Landsat 5-7-9 images from 1991, 2001 and 2022. Red arrows indicate the 1991 terminus location of three glaciers draining from the summit region, including Nieves Negras Glacier (NN). Point A-D are locations of expanding bedrock amidst the glacier.  Snowpack very limited in 2022. Volcan San Jose is a 5850 m glacier draped volcano that straddles the Argentina-Chile border. Here we focus on the …


18 February 2022

Palomo Glacier, Chile Snow Cover Loss in 2022 and Accelerating Retreat

Palomo Glacier, Chile in Landsat 5, 8 and 9 images illustrating retreat from 1987 position, red arrow, and expansion of bare rock areas amidst the glacier at Point A,B and C. Note lack of retained snowcover in 2022. Palomo Glacier is a large valley glacier in Central Andes of Chile. Adjacent to the Cortaderal Glacier and Universidad Glacier, it flows east from Volcan Paloma (4860 m)  and drains into the …


31 January 2022

Olivares Beta and Gamma Glaciers, Chile Bare of Snowcover in 2022

Olivares Beta (B) and Olivares Gamma (G) Glacier in Sentinel image from 1-23-2022, illustrating the lack of retained snowcover with 8 weeks left in the melt season. The yellow arrow marks proglacial lakes below each glacier. The red arrow an area of emerging bedrock on the upper Beta, X marks a location where the glaciers were joined in 1986 and now have separated.  Olivares Beta and Olivares Gamma Glacier are …


17 January 2022

Cortaderal Glacier, Chile 2022 Heat Wave Reduces Snow Cover, Retreat Continues

Cortaderal Glacier in Landsat images from 2014 and 2022. The glacier retreated 1400 m during this interval. The snowline in January 2014 is at 3750 m. On January 15, 2022 the snowline averages 4100 m with less than 15% snowcovered with 2.5 months left in the melt season. Red arrow is 2014 terminus and yellow arrow is 2022 terminus. Cortaderal Glacier is a large valley glacier in Central Andes of …


27 December 2021

Oriental Glacier, Chile Retreats from Island Poised for Rapid Lake Expansion

Oriental Glacier in 1986 and 2021 Landsat imagery illustrating retreat from the island (I) and diminishing width and flow of tributaries at P0int A and B. A marginal lake has formed at Point M as the glaciers terminus section has thinned and narrowed. Oriental Glacier terminates in an expanding proglacial Lago Oriental at the northeastern margin of the Southern Patagonia Icefield (SPI). The glacier had terminated on an island in …


12 December 2021

Steffen Glacier, Chile Drainage of Laguna de Los Tempanos

Laguna de los Tempanos full on February 9, 2021 and drained on December 6, 2021 in Sentinel 2 images. Point A marks the western margin when full. Point C marks the western margin when drained.  Steffen Glacier is the south flowing glacier from the 4000 km2 Northern Patagonia Icefield (NPI). Several key research papers have reported on the spectacular retreat of this glacier in recent years.  Glasser et al (2016) reported …


21 November 2021

Bernardo Glacier, Chile Retreat Yields 15 km2 Lake Expansion 1986-2021

Bernardo Glacier in Landsat images from 1986 and 2021 illustrating retreat at the southern (S), middle (M) and northern (N) terminus respectively. Red arrows are 1986 terminus locations, yellow arrows are 2021 terminus locations. Separation from Tempano occurs at S, while lake expansion occurs at M and N. Bernardo Glacier is an outlet glacier on the west side of the Southern Patagonia Icefield (SPI) that  currently ends in an expanding …


26 October 2021

Queulat Glacer Complex, Chile Recession 1987-2021

Seven outlet glaciers of the Queulat glacier complex, Chile in 1987 and 2020 Landsat images. A=Rosselot Glacier and D=Colgante Hanging Glacier are the only ones in 1987 not terminating in a proglacial lake. The other five retreated from a proglacial lake since 1987 and Rosselot Glacier retreat has led to formation of two lakes.  Nevado Queulat, Chile is the centerpiece of the Queulat National Park in the Aysen Region.  This …


24 February 2021

HPN4 Glacier, Chile New Lake Forms and Drains in 2021

Glacier dammed lake formation at HPN4 Glacier, Chile between Landsat images of Feb. 2020 and Feb. 2021, yellow arrows indicating new calving fronts on either end of lake.  HPN4 Glacier drains the southern side of NPI just east of Steffen Glacier. The terminus retreated little from 1987-2015, see below (Pelto, 2015 and 2017). The main change is in the eastern tributary 1-2 km north of the terminus. In 1987 there were …


17 February 2021

Tres Puntas Glacier, Chile Loses 50% of its Length this Century

Tres Puntas Glacier, Chile in 1999 and 2021 Landsat imagery. Red arrow is 1999 terminus location, yellow arrow the 2021 location, Point A is where tributaries joined in 1999 and Point B is where an adjacent glacier drains west. Tres Puntas Glacier flow south from Cerro Tres Puntas draining south into Lago O’Higgins in Patagonia. The icefield is east of the Patagonia icefields where Davies and Glasser (2012) noted the …


3 December 2020

Soler Glacier Retreat and Lake Expansion

Soler Glacier in 1987 and 2020 Landsat images.  Red arrow indicates 1987 terminus location, yellow arrow indicates 2020 terminus location on north side of glacier.  Yellow dots indicate margin of lake and purple arrows indicate specific locations where glacier thinning is evident. Soler Glacier is an outlet glacier on the east side of the Northern Patagonia Icefield (NPI). The terminus response of this glacier has been slower and more limited …


27 May 2020

Darwin Glacier, Chile 1986-2020 Retreat Opens New Fjord Arm

Darwin Glacier in Landsat images from 1986 and 2020. Red arrow indicates 1986 terminus location, yellow arrow 2020 terminus location, purple dots the snowline.  Point 1,2 and 3 indicate the same specific location. Darwin Glacier flows east from the main divide of the Cordillera Darwin entering the head of Fjord Parry. Here we examine changes illustrated by Landsat images from 1986-2020.   Melkonian et al (2013) note widespread thinning of four large glaciers …


12 January 2020

Fiero Glacier, Chile Retreat Lago Fiero Expansion

Fiero Glacier in 1987 Landsat and 2020 Sentinel images.  Red arrow indicates 1987 terminus location, yellow arrow 2020 terminus lcoation, and purple dots the snowline. Point A,B and C represent locations where bedrock has expanded. Fiero Glacier is an outlet glacier draining the northeast quadrant of the Northern Patagonia Icefield (NPI) terminating in Lago Fiero. Loriaux and Casassa (2013) examined the expansion of lakes of the Northern Patagonia Ice Cap. …


15 April 2019

Northern Patagonia Icefield High Equilibrium Line Altitude in 2019

Northern Patagonia Icefield Landsat view on 4/6/2019. Transient snowline indicated on individual glaciers with purple dots. Clockwise, L=Leones, So=Soler, N=Nef, Ca=Cachet, Co=Colonia,  PN=Pared Nord, PS=Pared Sur, H4=HPN4, St=Steffen, A=Acodado, B=Benito, H1=HPN1, Sq=San Quintin. The Northern Patagonia Icefield from 1987-2015 decreased in area, while debris cover area expanded and the size of proglacial lakes expanded (Glasser et al 2016).  The icefield area declined from 4113 to 3887 km2, debris cover increased …


4 December 2018

San Quintin Glacier High Calving Rate Observations in 2018

San Quintin Glacier in 4-16-2017 Sentinel image, red dots indicate terminus location then. Yellow dots the terminus location  on 11-10-2018. San Quintin Glacier in 3-20-2018 Sentinel image, pink dots indicate terminus position.  San Quintin Glacier in 11-10-2018 Sentinel image. Yellow dots the terminus location  on 11-10-2018, pink dots from 3-30-2018 and red dots from 4-16-2017.  San Quintin is the largest glacier of the NPI at 790 km2 in .  The glacier …


13 April 2018

Pico Alto Glacier, Chile Retreat New Lake Formed

Pico Alto Glacier, Chile in 1986 and 2017 Landsat images indicating the retreat.  Red arrow indciates 1986 terminus, yellow arrow the 2017 terminus,and purple dots the snowline.  Pico Alto Glacier, Chile drains north from the Argentina-Chile border entering the Rio Puelo and eventually Lago Tagua. The glacier ongoing retreat is similar to the nearby Hornopiren Glacier and Erasmo Glacier.  Davies and Glasser (2012) mapped the glaciers in the Hornopiren region and found …


6 March 2018

Rio Engaño, Chile Headwater Glacier Retreat GLOF Threat Drops

Comparison of glaciers at the headwaters of Rio Engaño in 1984 and 2018 Landsat images. The 1984 terminus location with red arrows, yellow arrows the 2018 terminus location, purple arrows wind drift patterns. Rio Engaño drains into Lago General Carrera and its headwaters is a group of alpine glaciers.  In March of 1977 one of the glaciers, generated a glacier lake outburst flood (GLOF) that reached a depth of 1.5 m  at the …


19 February 2018

Pared Nord Glacier, Chile Retreat & Landslide Transport 1987-2018

Pared Nord Glacier, Chile in 1987 and 2018 Landsat images.  The red arrow indicates the 1987 terminus location, yellow arrow the 2018 terminus location and purple arrows areas of expanding rock in the lower accumulation zone.  Point A is the front of a wide debris zone from a former landslide, Point B is the front of another landslide deposited debris zone. Point C is a recent landslide deposit on a …