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3 February 2023

Friday fold: Kyanite quartzite

A return to the “video Friday fold” format:


16 August 2022

Kinked metavolcanics of the Castine Formation, eastern Maine

Callan shares a few outcrops from coastal Maine, part of the Avalonia terrane that accreted to ancestral North America during the Acadian Orogeny. They are volcaniclastic rocks, coarse and fine, and showing both overprinting kink bands and cross-cutting basaltic dikes.


24 June 2022

Friday fold: Kinked Lynchburg metasediments near a soapstone body

Happy Friday! Here are some kink-folded metasediments from Virginia’s Lynchburg Group to help usher in the weekend.


11 June 2021

Friday fold: inadvertent kink fold analogue model

It’s Friday! Adam Forte, a geology professor at LSU, posted this image yesterday on Twitter: It’s a box of sheets of newsprint, stored vertically and ignored for a while, now rotated 90° so we’re looking at a cross-sectional view. To me, this is an excellent example of a physical analogue modelling experiment (albeit inadvertent) that demonstrates the process by which kink folds form. The key parameters to get this distinctive …


7 May 2021

Friday fold: Lynchburg Group

On his way to get his COVID vaccine, Callan visits a new outcrop showing folded and faulted strata of the Neoproterozoic Lynchburg Group.


24 July 2020

Friday fold: Totier Creek phyllite

Exploring his new digs in Charlottesville, Callan is introduced to a large exposure of phyllite at a dam’s spillway. The foliation there is folded in many ways. Share in a dozen field photos of the site…


8 November 2019

Friday fold: Rist Canyon cobble

From a creek bed in northern Colorado, the Friday fold distorts foliation in early Proterozoic quartzofeldspathic gneiss, peppered with small almandine garnets.  


14 June 2019

Friday fold: kinked cleavage at Harpers Ferry

Last weekend was the annual meeting of the eastern section of the National Association of Geoscience Teachers. On Friday afternoon, we visited Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, and my colleague Beth Doyle led a great field trip to examine the rocks exposed there. This was my favorite outcrop we saw: Here is a close up of this outcrop, which is framed by (anthropogenic) rock wall: Dipping shallowly from upper left to …


21 November 2018

Brittle overprinting ductile in the South Mountains metamorphic core complex, Phoenix, Arizona

Today, we take a look at the structural geology that reveals the deformation evolution (first ductile, then brittle) of the South Mountains metamorphic core complex, south of Phoenix, Arizona. Expect lots of photos of smeared-out rocks, broken by faults.


22 August 2018

Q&A, episode 5

A reader asks: “What is foliation and what makes it so important to the structure of rock?”
Callan answers with a lot of images of beautifully foliated rocks.


13 February 2018

S-C fabric in limestone, Camerino, Italy

Some scaly Italian limestone shows off two foliations (S and C) which reveal the kinematic motions that built the Apennines.


9 August 2017

A suite of new 3D models

A showcase of five new 3D digital models of awesome rock samples and outcrops, produced using Agisoft Photoscan.


21 July 2017

Friday fold: Sardinia

My friend Ander Sundell at the College of Western Idaho is the source of today’s Friday fold. It’s from somewhere in Sardinia, and I think you’ll find it visually striking: Ander says: The rocks here are Silurian phyllites generated from mudstones that were deposited on the floor of the rheic ocean basin. The color and grain size variation do an excellent job highlighting compositional layering. They were deformed during the …


3 February 2017

Friday fold: Squaw Creek Schist, Idaho

The edge of ancestral North America can be found in the canyon of the Salmon River in western Idaho. Folds exposed the Squaw Creek Schist near Riggins record the stresses of adding terranes on during North America’s westward movement since the breakup of Pangaea. The Friday fold crinkled up during the accretion of a terrane to the growing North American continent.


25 November 2016

Friday fold: intrafolial folds in Eriboll mylonite

At the birthplace of the term “mylonite,” we can find Friday folds hidden in the foliation.


22 September 2016

Eyes on some augens in a nice gneiss

Take a look at these gorgeous exposures of augen gneiss in eastern “mainland” Shetland, U.K. Includes 3 GigaPans of the site.


8 August 2014

Friday fold: Buckle vs. passive folding in the Chancellor Group slates

The Friday fold is an outcrop in Yoho National Park that showcases differences between buckle folding and passive folding.


10 May 2013

Friday fold: New Market / Lincolnshire formation contact, Staunton, Virginia

Happy Friday! Here’s a view of the folded contact between the (older, lower) New Market Formation, and the (younger, upper) Lincolnshire Formation, as exposed in Staunton, Virginia: The contact has been folded, pretty intensely: The New Market Formation is massive, light-colored, and exhibits fenestral texture here. The Lincolnshire is darker, more thinly-bedded, and is chock full of fossil invertebrates. Explore it for yourself in this M.A.G.I.C. GigaPan: [gigapan id=”128611″] link …


29 April 2013

Kink bands in highly strained Laurel Formation, Rock Creek Shear Zone, DC

Last week before GSW, I spent several pollen-choked hours in Rock Creek Park, GigaPanning some of the rocks of the Rock Creek Shear Zone. Here are some exposures in the bed of Broad Branch that show lovely kink banding. In at least one spot, you can see a conjugate pair, so these rocks were (1) sheared out in a ductile shear zone, producing the foliation, and then (2) compressed under …


4 January 2013

Friday fold: Up on Opequon Creek

I got a call last month from Rebekah Wiedower, a landowner up in Frederick & Clarke counties (her family’s property includes pieces of both), inviting me to come up and look at some anticlines and synclines that Dan Doctor (USGS) had identified on the bank of Opequon Creek. I was glad to do it, though shooting these photos meant I had to wade across the stream in my sneakers (on …